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History of Education in USA - Research Paper Example He realized that different student had different academic needs and advocated activities in his curriculum. Jefferson pushed a system of education which accomplished the base of strong foundation of universities and colleges. In 1786 Benjamin Rush presented an educational system which he hoped would meet the needs of democratic ideology. He was of the view that the sanctuary of a nation lies in a proper education. He advocated education for both men and women to understand the principles of democracy and to implement it properly. Noah Webster, during his tenor, identified the need for schools to have text books in American language and experienced a conflict towards the British which they currently used. His unique achievement was American dictionary, which he created instead of following other dictionaries. The federal government has played its role to improve standard of education throughout America. They have strived to help citizen in getting better quality of education by lending extra money to those who need it. Most of the credit goes to G.I Bill, National Defence Education Act (NDEA), and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), because of which many Americans have been able to get higher education. Granting federal land to the states for educational purposes started with the Northwest ordinance of 1785. The G.I. Bill of rights is the base which worked as a lime stone for providing educational benefits for veterans of World War II. The general aim of this legislation has been to compensate veterans for their services and sacrifices. Many veterans took advantage from this Act and graduated from this program with prolific careers. Federal government also established number of schools for specific purposes and encouraged recreational education in acts as NDEA in 1958. Political dynamics laid hurdles in actions of federal aid legislation, but the situation changed when Soviet Union, rival of US created space satellite. Another act that promoted federal financial aids further, was ESEA of 1965. Where NSEA emphasized on science and math, ESEA responded to the prominent social change in society. The ESEA related to President Lyndon Johnson's program "War on Poverty" encouraged special programs for children of poor families. In 1981 this act was named chapter 1 of Educational Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA). (Christen Baylis-Heerschop, 2007). The National Service Legislation of 1993 (the National and Community Trust Act), and the Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (better known as Public Law 94-142) are merely current extensions of federal involvement in education that reaches back to American historical beginnings. The 1990 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the Education Amendments of 1997 extended provisions of Public Law 94-142 to all citizens from ages 2 to 21. Provisions of both acts are under continuing review by congressional committees to clarify various provisions. The acts require inclusion, or placing students with physical and emotional challenges in regular classrooms. The 2005 funding reauthorization act, "Improving Education Results for Children with Disabilities," expanded, defined, and clarified
â€œThe Flyâ€ by Katherine Mansfield is a short story which focuses on the trials and tribulations faced by those who lost relatives in World War One. Many who lost family and friends in the war struggled for years with grief, while others accepted the shortcomings and managed to overcome it. Everyone faced their own challenges, and everyone overcame them different ways, or in some cases not at all. Katherine Mansfield is one of many people who lost relatives in the war. She herself lost her brother in WW1 like Mr. Woodifield and the boss did. She wrote this story because she felt like she was a victim of helplessness and darkness, struggling with grief and also struggling with the Tuberculosis treatment she was going through at the time. This relates to the story because the boss felt like he was on his own after the death of his son, â€œEver since his birth the boss had worked at building up this business for him; it had no other meaning if it was not for the boy.â€ He felt like he had no reason to do anything, like he was helpless and in the dark. The theme â€˜time is a great healerâ€™ fits these thoughts, because no matter what the boss might think, over time he is slowly getting over the death of his son even though he said â€œTime, he declared then, he had told everybody, could make no difference.â€ Six years have passed since the death of their sons, and Mr. Woodifield has overcome his grief, and has forgotten about his son, needing the help of whisky to remember that his daughters visited his grave. The boss however, believes that he is still wrought with grief, when in fact he has overcome it. He can no longer cry when his son is mentioned, and he can no longer use the photograph on the wall to force the emotions of grief on him. He forgets about his son, and that indicates that perhaps he is over his grief more than he would like to think. Time has healed him, and made it so he can no longer grieve as he used to. Mr. Woodifield is the one who forces the boss to come to terms with his feelings. He is simply visiting his old friend and employer, when he recalls that he had something to tell him, however he could not remember what it was. Feeling pity for the man who is â€œon his last pins,â€ the boss offers him a drink of whisky to help recall his memories, which Mr. Woodifield is successful in doing. However the memories are not pleasant ones for the boss. Mr. Woodifield informs him that his daughters went toÂ visit his son Reggieâ€™s grave, and happened to see the bossâ€™ son there. They remark that the graves are well-kept and very nice. This brings up memories that the boss didnâ€™t want to remember, and as soon as Mr. Woodifield had left, he asks his messenger to let no one bother him for a half hour. During this time the boss attempts to recall his feelings of grief for his son, and failing to do that he turns to the photograph, hoping that will help. A fly however falls into his inkwell and forces his attention towards it, coincidentally making him once again forget his son. He focuses on the fly and helps it out, then watching as it cleans itself. He decides that he will test the fly, and proceeds to drop ink onto it. On the fourth drop the fly gives in, and the boss throws it away, just as he did with his memories of his son, which â€œFor the life of him he could not remember.â€ Similes play a part in making the reader understand the story. For example when describing Mr. Woodifield using the simile â€œHe peered out of the great, green leather arm-chair by his friend, the bossâ€™s desk, as a baby peers out of its pram,â€ gives you the impression that Mr. Woodifield is perhaps getting on in age, and yet is still curious about everything that goes on around him. Another example is when Katherine talks about grief saying â€œwe cling to our last pleasures as the tree clings to its last leaves,â€ meaning that the boss refused to let go of the grief, even though subconsciously he had already done so. The use of the metaphor â€œThe day had come when Macey had handed him the telegram that brought the whole place crashing about his head,â€ forces the reader to imagine the bossâ€™ feelings and reaction when he got the news about his son. He was devastated, and the metaphor used really enforces the point. To further enforce the point of devastation and grief, imagery is used. The two major ones are the fly and the boss himself, however there is also the photograph on the wall. The boss represents all those who have lost someone in the terrible war, yet they kept a faÃ§ade of being strong, and being the leader when in public, and when in private they were grieving their loved ones. He is a symbol of authority and power, keeping control when needed. The fly symbolizes those who lost their lives in the war. The young men who were shipped off to fight for their country, and who were getting more and more worn out the more years the war went on for. It symbolizes the constant struggle they had to deal with, and eventually they couldnâ€™t handle it no more. Eventually the last inkblot killed the fly, justÂ as the last year of war killed a lot of the remaining young men and their innocence. The photo, while not mentioned as much, represents the innocence the young men had, and then lost in their first year of war. The things they had to do and see robbed them of the boyish innocence they went in with. â€œThe expression was unnatural. It was cold, even stern-looking.â€ They all were changed by the horrendous happenings that they had to bear witness too. Overall this story sends out a message that everyone has their own way to grieve and everyone will spend different amounts of time doing so. Eventually however time will heal even the worst feelings of grief, and that is why I liked this story. It shows that no matter what things will get better one day. Things will get better, even if you donâ€™t believe it ever will. Others should read this story, because at some time in their lives, they will have to face a challenge, and this story will remind them that time will help. They wonâ€™t overcome it straight away, but with time, they will get better. Just like Mr. Woodifield, and even the boss did.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.